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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2579\margr4198\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2579\margrsxn4198\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li7\fi0\ri22\sb0\sa0\sl-240\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw7\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 ^popularity must have gone a long way to enable \expndtw3 isunaga \loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0  a mere \i amdtya (minister\} \i0\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'97\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0  to seize the \expndtw9 irone for himself. This long is represented in the \i\expndtw-2 "urdnas \i0 as an ancestor of Bimbisara, but the Ceylonese \expndtw9 htonicles indubitably prove that the former came \expndtw8 ^veral generations after the latter.\super 1\nosupersub  After the \i coup \super\expndtw5 9\nosupersub etat, \i0 Sisunaga is said to have made Girivraja his \expndtw3 esidence, placing his son at Varanasi (Benares) as \expndtw9 ;overnor.\super 2\nosupersub  The most noteworthy achievement of \expndtw6 iisunaga was the annihilation of the power of the \super\expndtw2 >\nosupersub radyotas\sub 3\nosupersub  with whom a clash had become inevitable \expndtw7 fter their conquest of Kosambi. Probably the van\-\expndtw-1 quished king of Avanti was Vartivardhana or Avanti-rardhana, and it is significant that the Pradyota dynasty \expndtw5 iisappears from the stage of history about this time. \expndtw3 fhus, this triumph made Sisunaga ruler of almost the \expndtw2 xrhole of MadhyadeSa, Malwa, and othet territories in \expndtw5 he North.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li7\fi0\ri0\sb137\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex84\expndtw5\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The Nandas}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li5\fi398\ri22\sb108\sa0\sl-242\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw1\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 About the middle of the fourth century B.C., the \expndtw-1 5isunaga dynasty was overthrown by an upstart named \expndtw1 Mahapadma,\super 3\nosupersub  who initiated a line known in history as \expndtw-1 ;hat of the Nan das.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li5\fi0\ri0\sb149\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex76\expndtw-3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Origin}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li391\fi0\ri0\sb82\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw4\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs24 Traditions differ regarding his origin.   According}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li2\fi293\ri0\sb218\sa0\sl-199\slmult0\tx410 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 1{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\i\expndtw1 Pol. Hist. Anc. Ind^ \i0 4th eel, pp, 178-79.   Dr. EL C. Raychau-\line \expndtw3 Ihuri's interpretation of the data available for the period seems to\line \expndtw0 is   most   convincing.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li295\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0\tx410 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex73\expndtw0\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs28 2{\charscalex100\expndtw0\tab }\nosupersub\expndtw10 cf. cjKiuj^t *f \scaps otft}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li0\fi312\ri0\sb0\sa0\sl-199\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\super\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw10\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs20 3\nosupersub  Called Ugrasena in Pall works. The name is in allusion \expndtw8 o his huge army. Similarly, the name Mahapadma perhaps \expndtw1 ndicates that his army was as big as could be arranged in the lotus \expndtw8 ashion \i (Padmavyuha). \i0 Or\sub a\nosupersub  does it signify that he possessed wealth amounting to a \i Padmat \i0 Has the name Kalasoka or \expndtw1 JCakavarna anything to do with his dark complexion?}\par }